Our universe might be defined mathematically by way of an easy version constructed in 1922 at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) via Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925). with out the good thing about observational facts, Friedmann expected that the full universe could extend and evolve with time. This dazzling prediction used to be proven seven years later by way of Edwin Hubble. Its originator, regrettably did not dwell to delight in this triumph. This shiny biography of a great scientist units his lifestyles and paintings opposed to a large backdrop of the background of cosmological stories and its significant avid gamers, comparable to Einstein and others. The e-book is a window on Friedmann's tuition and collage years, army provider, and instructing and examine in the course of a seminal interval of Soviet heritage. The authors comprise precise archival fabric, reminiscent of Friedmann's letters from the Russian entrance, in addition to modern documents and memories of work-mates. there's a certain therapy of his paintings in theoretical cosmology (1922-1924), set within the context of the association of Soviet technology on the time.

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Apt. 21. regrettably, this letter of Friedmann's bears no date. It most likely dates from 1909 or 1910. it truly is transparent that Alexander Friedmann was once in strained monetary conditions. apparently his father had died (the date of his dying has now not been tested; from conversations with V. V. Doinikova it is just recognized that he had died earlier than Friedmann's grandfather, i. e. earlier than 1910). because of this Friedmann moved to his grandfather's position in Sergievsky highway (now Tchaikovsky Street). His grandfather have been retired for a 12 months already, so it grew to become awkward for his grandson to abuse or, possibly, use his aid in any respect. looking for an source of revenue he utilized to The Russian college, a weekly released by means of the recognized St. Petersburg pedagogue Ya. Ya. Gurevich. Having regarded during the magazine, we present in the 1908-10 concerns a number of stories signed via "A. F—n. " even if, one can't be convinced that our "Friedmann" is in the back of them all. in reality, in Gurevich's magazine there has been a contributor, A. Fomin by means of identify, who occasionally signed together with his complete identify, yet occasionally additionally with initials. Judging by way of the content material of a few of the books reviewed within the magazine, which can now not probably curiosity Friedmann, these studies have been written via Fomin. even if, Friedmann's authorship can in basic terms be conjectured, simply because there are a few experiences that can were, in precept, written via him, but are signed by way of Fomin. yet here's a assessment of S. Melgunov's ebook scholars' enterprises of the 1880s-1890s at Moscow collage (Based on Archives), Moscow, 1908, 50 kopecks. this can be probably Friedmann, along with his curiosity in scholar (and quite often early life) activities, and his involvement in college existence. "The book," says the evaluate, "will be learn with curiosity not just by way of those people who are specifically drawn to the background of our universities, yet through each person who's attracted to the historical past of our society, of our social move. The Russian collage, because of old stipulations, has constantly been the social barometer. " one other overview is that of a French e-book (not translated into Russian) 42 collage years, 1906-14 by way of S. Santerre Psychology of quantity and basic Operations in mathematics, Paris, 1906. This ebook is dedicated to the philosophy of arithmetic, to its new developments; the thrust of the publication (judging via the assessment) is the concern of arithmetic within the alliance of sciences, and the writer is striving to unite it with psychology. Friedmann may perhaps quite often have reviewed different books: one by means of E. C. Brewer - A advisor to the medical wisdom of items time-honored, which had had forty six (! ) versions in England, and one through H. Weimer - A historical past of Pedagogics. yet Friedmann's studies have been now not being released within the magazine, quite often, it kind of feels, simply because he had proficient competitors within the long-standing members N. Tomilin (who reviewed books on physics) and F. I. Pavlov (mathematics). even though, there's cause to think that Ehrenfest didn't forget about Friedmann's request. on account that 1908, Ehrenfest were very actively concerned with the magazine of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society (the physics part) and difficulties in Physics, the journal's complement.

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